As of 2012, Canada only had two IXPs, a large IXP in Toronto (TORIX), and a smaller IXP in Ottawa (Ottix). This situation was attributed to the restrictive telecom and ISP market in Canada that is dominated by three large companie, and the proximity and the market in the United States. As a result of these factors, most traffic between Canadian cities transits through the United States.
During 2013, however, the major cities in the Canadian states of Alberta, Quebec, Saskatchewan and British Columbia either have operational IXPs or are developing IXPs. Like Brazil, where the ccTLD registry is able to use its expertise to support IXPs, the Canadian Internet Registration Authority (CIRA) has been helping Canadian IXPs develop. CIRA does not fund or manage any of the Canadian IXPs, but primarily provides non-material support to help local ISPs begin planning to set up IXPs in their cities. For example, CIRA has assisted in holding town-hall meetings/community building activities to bring potential IXP members together.